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Indigenizing Learning Outcomes

LaFever has elaborated on the categorizations developed by Bloom and Fink to include a 4-quadrant model based on the Medicine Wheel, that includes the spiritual aspect of learning. By including the additional ‘spiritual domain,’ LaFever provides a model for indigenizing learning outcomes and course design.

The Spiritual Domain Includes:

  • Honouring – refers to being conscious and aware of our own thoughts and feelings, without judging, and being open to new experiences
  • Value/d –Β refers to relationship building that acknowledges the importance and worth of qualities relating to spiritual well-being
  • Connect/ed – relates to developing a sense of group belonging (e.g., in the classroom, community etc.)
  • Empower/dΒ – relates to an giving and receiving support in an environment that fosters confidence and strength
  • Self actualize/d –Β becoming who we are meant to be
LaFever's 4-quadrant model based on the Medicine Wheel

Pros of LaFever

  • spiritual domain is added to a taxonomy with which many people are already familiar (Bloom)
  • is more inclusive for indigenous students and for diverse students in general
  • invites us to reimagine how we teach and assess in ways that also support mental health and well-being

Cons of LaFever

  • typical college modes of assessment do not lend themselves well to assessing the spiritual domain of learning
  • more challenging for non-indigenous instructors to apply appropriately and without inadvertently reinforcing colonial approaches
  • requires reinterpreting the roles of both the teacher and students (which may be easier in some areas than others)

Sample Verbs & Progression for Creating Outcome Statements


  • consider
  • mediate on
  • be aware
  • seek
  • allow
  • listen
  • observe


  • empathize
  • honour
  • acknowledge
  • balance
  • exemplify


  • consult
  • work with
  • support
  • cooperate
  • participate
  • develop


  • gain
  • speak out about
  • advocate
  • act on
  • defend
  • influence


  • become
  • self-define
  • sustain
  • possess
  • dream
Tip As a way of thinking about the more spiritual aspects of learning, explore this infographic “Humanizing your Online Class (PDF).
Handouts Icon


  • Switching from Bloom to the Medicine Wheel – Complete Article By LaFever –Β  PDF Version
Fink Classifications of Learning Webb Classifications of Learning